A) Human Rights 1. Are all citizens respected as equals? Article 6 (Equality) of the Finnish constitution from 11 June 1999 reads as follows: Everyone is equal before the law. No one shall, without an acceptable reason, be treated differently from other persons on the ground of sex, age, origin, language, religion, conviction, opinion, health, disability or other reason that concerns his or her person... Equality of the sexes is promoted in societal activity and working life, especially in the determination of pay and the other terms of employment, as provided ... A historical background for this article consists in the former language strife around the question of what status Swedish—the language which since the Middle Ages had been the main language of administration and high culture in Finland—and, on the other hand, Finnish—the first language of the majority of Finns—should have in political, cultural, educational, and other national arenas. The strife, that began in the latter half of the 19th century, continuing well into the 1920s and 1930s, has today lost its prominence as Finnish has attained a dominant status. But there is still public debate about issues such as to what extent Swedish-majority administrative units should be kept separate and to what extent knowledge of Swedish should be a prerequisite for different positions. Amnesty International has expressed concerns regarding some issues in Finland, such as asylum-seekers facing detention in unsuitable facilities, allegations of permitting stopovers of CIA rendition flights, the imprisonment of objectors to military service, and societal discrimination against Romani people and members of other ethnic and linguistic minorities. In a number of areas, the country's small feminist movement maintained that the circumstances in which Finnish women lived needed to be improved. A Government's Action Plan for Gender Equality 2012-2015 includes key measures by which the government promotes equality between women and men and combats gender- based discrimination. One of its measures concerns the publishing of pay survey analyses in central government. The tripartite Equal Pay Programme for 2006 -2015 aims to reduce the gender gap from around 20 % to 15 % and to implement the principle of ‘equal pay for work of equal value´. The programme includes actions on desegregation, the development of pay systems, measures to support women`s careers, and calls for the social partners to establish agreements to reduce the pay gap (http://ec.europa.eu/justice/gender-equality/gender-pay-gap/national-action/law/index_en.htm). Altogether Finland can be considered as a country with high standards and committed efforts of guaranteeing individual equality. Score: Respect for all people as equal citizens: 95% 2. Are fair and free procedures usual in society and state? Everyone has the right to life, personal liberty, integrity and security. No one shall be sentenced to death, tortured or otherwise treated in a manner violating human dignity. The personal integrity of the individual shall not be violated, nor shall anyone be deprived of liberty arbitrarily or without a reason prescribed by an Act. A penalty involving deprivation of liberty may be imposed only by a court of law. The lawfulness of other cases of deprivation of liberty may be submitted for review by a court of law. The rights of individuals deprived of their liberty shall be guaranteed by an Act (7). In the constitution entailed are also the principle of legality in criminal cases (8), the rigth of free movement (9), the right to privacy (10), freedom of religion and conscience (11), freedom of expression and right of access to information (12), freedom of assembly and freedom of association (13), electoral and participatory rights (14). Further rights are protection of property (15), educational rights (16) - everyone has the right to basic education free of charge -, and the right to one’s language and culture (17). The constitutional freedoms and rights, combined with a broadly anchored attitude of equality, are a firm basis for having fair, free procedures in Finland. Indeed, there are some practical limitations and challenges: Even in lawsuits of criminal justic, deals between judge, prosecutor, and culprit sometimes take place. Finland is a country of a middle to high tax load of every citizen; against this background, tax evasion is relatively low, so far it can be registered; but it happens as part of an international phenomenon. http://www.helsinkitimes.fi/columns/columns/mp- talk/13225-we-have-to-take-active-measures-to-battle-tax-evasion-and-tax-competition.html  Social and political networks play a significant role in Finland. Given that, perceived corruption is surprisingly low: According to the Corruption Perception Index 2014, Finland is ranked behind Denmark and New Zealand as country of third lowest corruption in the world (https://www.transparency.org/cpi2014/results). Finnish police are ranked as the least corruptible law enforcement in the world. Anyone attempting to bribe a Finnish police officer should expect to be arrested (https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=13839)  Indeed, Transparency International criticized the lack of transparency of the system of Finnish political finance. The law includes no punishment of false funds reports of the elected politicians (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finland). Finland has been known to give low sentences for financial crimes such as cartel, insider trading, and tax evasion. The sentences are especially low when compared with the potential benefits of committing such crimes, as well as when compared with international standards. The significant importance of networks in Finland also concerns the academic field: Finland does not exceed as a particularly innovative country - a current economic problem and a possible indicator of blocking effects of conformity and network thinking. Those limitations, indeed, affect the given status of fair and free procedures in Finnish state and society only to a low degree. Score: Fair and free procedures: 85% 3. Are all national borders be respected? During long periods of its history, Finland has been part of external dominions (Sweden, Russia). After having won its national sovereignty in 1917, its national borders towards the Soviet Union were an issue for the so-called Whites, particularly after the 1922 treaty with Russia wherein Eastern Karelia was recognized to be a part of the Soviet- Union. In the Winter War (30 November 1939 – 13 March 1940), that resulted in a loss of 11% of its land area and 30% of its economy to the Soviet Union, and the so-called Continuation War from 25 June 1941 – 19 September 1944 (Finland ceded Petsamo Province to the Soviets, leased Porkkala peninsula to them, and paid reparations, while ultimately retaining its independence), this issue was the central one of Finnish relations. Since then Finland’s relationship as a small country towards powerful Soviet-Union, the Russian Bear, stayed, at least implicitely, an important issue of the Finnish foreign policy - with self-evident strict respect of all existing borders by Finland. Facing the current Ukraine conflict the finnish public debate was phasewise very thoroughful. So in his New Years Speech 2015 Finnish president Niinistö stated: We condemned Russia’s illegal annexation of Crimea as soon as it happened and then condemned Russia’s actions in eastern Ukraine. We have done this in the EU context but have also made this clear in our direct contacts with Russia. We condemn any illegal occupations, illegal use of force or attempts to limit the sovereignty of independent nations. Such actions never achieve  anything but danger and increased tension. While power may have once grown out of the barrel of a gun, these days it leads to nothing but chaos.  http://www.presidentti.fi/public/default.aspx?contentid=319060&nodeid=44807&contentlan=2&culture=en-US Score: Respect for international borders: 96%  Summed up Score: Human Rights  (95+85+96)/3= 92 % B) Participation 1. May the people elect and recall their government? On national level, Finland elects  a head of state—the president—and a legislature. The president is elected for a six-year term by the people. The Parliament (Finnish: eduskunta, Swedish: riksdag) is elected for a four-year term by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies. In addition to the presidential and parliamentary elections, there are European Parliament elections every five years, and local municipal elections (held simultaneously in every municipality) every four years. Finland's electoral system is by and large proportional (with the limitation of having constituencies of different sizes, favoring rural constituencies). In that system, the individual candidates play a basic role towards parties. That’s why Finland gives to the electorate both, the right of electing all persons sitting in parliament and the right of electing parties. This particularly high electoral capacity of the people goes along with direct election of the president. Score:  Rights of electing and recalling: 95% 2. May the people participate in current decision-making? The Constitution of Finland allows only for a non-binding referendum called on by the Parliament. If 50.000 Finnish citizens sign an initiative (for an act or a referendum), the Parliament has to discuss it, but the initiative is not binding. As of 2015 there have been only two referenda in Finland, Finnish prohibition referendum in 1931 and Finnish European Union membership referendum in 1994. In general, public communication about crucial political issues and the responsivity of the parliamentary system, however, are big enough to constitute a distinct participation of the people in current decision-making.  Score: Participating in current decision-making: 85% 3. How representative are the people’s representations? The slight disproportion of representation between rural and agglomeration areas (in favor of the first ones) may be considered as a necessary modification in order to prevent a too strong political weight of urban areas. Regarding the professional representativity of the Finnish parliament, there are no public data accessible. But the way deputies are elected in Finnland and the relatively low significance of parties (compared to party states such as Germany) lead to the assumption that socially particularly accepted professions, at that academics, will prevail (to a moderate degree). Women make up 40 percent of the members, the second-highest in the industrialized world (behind only the Parliament of Sweden). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parliament_of_Finland Score: Representativity:  80% Summed up Score: Participation: (95+85+80)/3 = 86,7%
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C) Coordination  1. Is there guaranteed peace? In contrast to the time-period from 1917 to the 1930s, when a deep socio-political split between the conservative Whites and the Sovjet-friendly Reds existed, Finland meanwhile rates as a relatively homogenious and as a distinctly peaceful country. Around 92% of residents have confidence in Finland's security institutions. Guns and other weapons are tightly regulated in Finland. One must separately apply for a gun license, which cannot be issued for "self defense reasons". Even other weapons, such as pepper sprays, are regulated. Carrying weapons, including guns and knives, in public is not allowed. The Finnish rate of incarceration (prison rate) belongs with 58 to 100.000 to the lowest in the world (2013). http://www.prisonstudies.org/sites/prisonstudies.org/files/resources/downloads/wppl_10.pdf This harmonic view, indeed, is to be modified in some regards: The Finns have the fourth most firearms in the world per capita (right after United States, Yemen, Switzerland) totalling 1.62 million registered privately owned firearms and 10,000–20,000 unregistered firearms. The Finnish rate of homicides does not belong to the lowest in the world ...http://www.unodc.org/gsh/en/data.html During the last decades, some events of mass slaughter happened, harshly injuring the usual image of Finnish harmony. The overall crime rate of Finland is not high in the EU context. Some crime types are above average, notably the highest homicide rate in Western Europe.[59] BELEG Lengths of prison sentences have increased in recent years, though Finnish prison terms are exceptionally short in the international context The Obtshak, a consortium of the Estonian Mafia (principally of Russian groups ethnic or origins) and Russian Mafia is involved in prostitution in Finland. They may also employ Finns as "minders" (gangsters). There are several competing motorcycle gangs in Finland. Bandidos MC and Hells Angels are international gangs, and Rogues Gallery is a Finnish gang from Lahti. Drug trade and security services are their sources of income. Alcohol and criminality: Finland traditionally suffers from a relatively high rate of alcohol dependency, a problem that has been tackled but has not yet been solved. The majority of criminals and victims of violent crime are under the influence of alcohol during the act. Statistics show that in homicides 61 to 75 percent, in attempted homicides 71 to 78 percent and in assaults 71 to 73 percent of the offenders have been under the influence of alcohol. During the last two decades the number of drunk offenders has increased. Roughly half of crimes of theft involve the use of alcohol. Score: Guaranteed Peace: 80% 2. Is the public infrastructure sufficiently fostered? The Finnish internet and mobil phone systems are in a very good condition. The national car and bus traffic system and the railway system are - without peculiar innovations - solidly cared of. Also the electricity system is, altogether, in a state of sufficient quality. The corresponding communal systems are efficiently cared of. That is, they are sufficiently fostered within urban agglomeration areas, but offer much less services in lower dense areas - an additional factor of the traditional drift to the cities in Finland. Score: Infrastructure: 80% 3.  Is the economy well coordinated? Finland has a highly industrialized mixed economy with a per capita output equal to that of other European economies such as France, Germany, Belgium or the UK. The largest sector of the economy is services at 66%, followed by manufacturing and refining at 31%. Primary production is 2.9%. With respect to foreign trade, the key economic sector is manufacturing. The largest industries are electronics (22%), machinery, vehicles and other engineered metal products (21.1%), forest industry (13%) and chemicals (11%). Finland is highly integrated into the global economy, and international trade is a third of GDP. The European Union makes up 60% of the total trade. The largest trade flows are with Germany, Russia, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States, Netherlands and China. Trade policy is managed by the European Union, where Finland has traditionally been among the free trade supporters, except for agriculture. Finland is the only Nordic country to have joined the Eurozone.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Finland http://www.tradingeconomics.com/finland/gdp-growth  Since 2012, the economic growth of Finland is  prevailingly negative. This crisis does not only trace back to decreasing Russian consumption (Western sanctions against Russia a.s.f); also NOKIA’s economic performance in this time-period might not be the only reason. http://company.nokia.com/en/system/files/download/investors/nokia_results_2014_q4_e.pdf Finland, rather, appears to experience an international  sale crisis in several branches, amongst them the forest branch. So far, Finland sticks in a distinct crisis of economic adaptation that reflects also deficits of economic coordination. Score: Economic coordination: 60 % 4. How evenly are the incomes distributed? Finland has one of the world's most extensive welfare systems, one that guarantees decent living conditions for all residents, Finns and non-citizens. Since the 1980s the social security has been cut back, but still the system is one of the most comprehensive in the world. The labor agreements also pose significant political questions. Bargaining is highly centralized, and often the government participates to coordinate fiscal policy. Finland has universal validity of collective labour agreements, and often, but not always, the trade unions, employers and the government reach a Comprehensive Income Policy Agreement. Figure: Income inequality in the European countries 2010, Gini coefficient (%), equivalent disposable money income: http://www.stat.fi/til/tjt/2011/05/tjt_2011_05_2013-05-22_tie_001_en.html Income differentials in Finland are still smaller than the European average even though they grew relatively rapidly by international comparison in the late 1990s. The most common income inequality indicator, the Gini index, was 25.8 in Finland in 2010 when the average for European countries was 30.7. The Gini coefficient gets the value 0 if everyone receives the same amount of income and 100 if one income earner receives all the income. Income refers to the monetary income after taxes and consists of earned income, property income, and transfers. Figure: Development of income inequality 1995– 2012, Gini index (%). http://www.stat.fi/til/tjkt/2012/02/tjkt_2012_02_2013-12-18_tie_002_en.html During the 2000s, theGINI Index shows quite stable results for Finland. Score: Income distribution: 87% 5.  Is health effectively protected? Health care in Finland consists of a highly decentralized, three-level publicly funded health care system and a much smaller private health care sector. Although the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health has the highest decision making authority, the municipalities (local governments) are responsible in providing health care to their residents. Finland offers its residents universal health care. Health promotion, including prevention of diseases has been the main focus of Finnish health care policies for decades. This has resulted in the eradication of certain communicable diseases and improvement in the health of population. The quality of service in Finnish health care is considered to be good; according to a survey published by the European Commission in 2000, Finland has the highest number of people satisfied with their hospital care system in the EU: 88% of Finnish respondents were satisfied compared with the EU average of 41.3%. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Healthcare_in_Finland According to the latest WHO data published in April 2011 life expectancy in Finland is: Male 77.6, female 83.8 and total life expectancy is 80.7 which gives Finland a World Life Expectancy ranking of 22 (Germany rank 23). Top causes of death in Finland are:   Coronary Heart Disease   Alzheimers/Dementia   Stroke   Lung Cancers   Suicide Score: Health Care: 86% 6. Education, research & development According all former PISA Studies, the Finnish education system was evaluated as one of the top systems in the world. Meanwhile (Study of 2012) Finland, which received several top positions in the first tests, fell in all three subjects (Math, Science, Reading), but remained the best performing country overall in Europe, achieving their best result in science with 545 points (5th) and worst in mathematics with 519 (12th) in which the country was outperformed by four other European countries. The drop in mathematics was 25 points since 2003, the last time mathematics was the focus of the tests. For the first time Finnish girls outperformed boys in the subject, but only narrowly. It was also the first time pupils in Finnish-speaking schools did not perform better than pupils in Swedish-speaking schools. Minister of Education and Science Krista Kiuru expressed concern for the overall drop, as well as the fact that the number of low-performers had increased from 7% to 12%.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PISA_2012 According to Statistics Finland, research and development expenditure amounted to EUR 6.68 billion in 2013. Expenditure went down by EUR 148 million from the year before. Business enterprises' investments in product development decreased by EUR 93 million. In the electronics industry, RD expenditure went down by EUR 114 billion. However, expenditure increased by over EUR 40 mi1lion in the industries of computer programming, consultancy and related activities, as well as research and development. RD expenditure declined by EUR 37 million in the university sector and by EUR 19 million in the rest of the public sector. Against the background of the endurant growth deficit of the Finnish economy, more scepticism regarding the Finnish system of education and research&development appears to be suitable.  Score: Education/Research&Development: 80% 7. Ecological and financial sustainability Although situated in a sensible nature, Finland so far does not belong to the most committed or even pioneers of ecological sustainability. It rather shows a middle-range profile of climate policy http://www.ym.fi/en- US/The_environment/Climate_and_air/Mitigation_of_climate_change/National_climate_policy and became latest country to pass a national Climate Change Act, setting a legally-binding target to cut Finnish emissions 80 per cent by 2050 http://www.businessgreen.com/bg/news/2348716/finland-becomes-latest-country-to-pass-national- climate-change-act Finland has four nuclear reactors providing nearly 30% of its electricity. A fifth reactor is now under construction and two more are planned. A 2014 Gallup poll was reported to show that 41% of the Fins were positive about nuclear power, while 24% were negative. Some universities and firms are on the path to search for new economic opportunities, world class sustainable solutionshttp://acs.aalto.fi/ http://www.tekes.fi/globalassets/julkaisut/sustainable_solutions.pdf Finland still has one of the lowest debt/GDP-ratios in the Eurozone, and also its budget deficit is within the Maastricht criteria’s limits. In Finland, the need to cut budget seems to come from a very strong debt- averseness and a link in public discourse with issues of competitiveness. Score ecological and financial sustainability: 85% Summed up Score: Coordination (80+80+60+87+86+80+85)/7 = 79,7 % Comprehensive Evaluation Finland Human Rights: 92 % Participation:  86.7% Coordination: 79,7%  Finland is a vital democracy with deficits of economic coordination 
IPA Institute for Political Analysis Prof. Dr. Volker von Prittwitz
The People Index Of the people, by the people, for the people  Finland              A vital democracy with deficits of economic coordination Criterions of evaluation: TPI