A) Respect 1. Are all citizens respected as equal and free? Racism, especially antisemitism, was a central feature of the NS regime. The Germanic peoples (the Nordic race) were considered the purest of the Aryan race, and therefore the master race. Millions of Jews and others deemed undesirable were persecuted and murdered in the Holocaust. Opposition to Hitler's rule was ruthlessly suppressed. Members of the liberal, socialist, and communist opposition were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. The Christian churches were also oppressed, with many leaders imprisoned. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany  In this frame of extreme unequality the concept of  Volksgenossen (fellow countrymen) was proclaimed, that included the strict principle of command and obedience in one nation. Women should be excluded from political involvement and confined to the spheres of "Kinder, Küche, Kirche" (Children, Kitchen, Church). So the NS system comprised socialistic elements of equality within a totalitarian system of inequality, suppression, and systematic mass murder. That’s why, inspite of some socialistic elements, no respect of all people as free and equal was given. Score: Respect for all people as free and equal: 0 % 2. Are fair and free procedures usual in society and state? The NS system proclaimed to operate with a regular judicial system. In practice the deeply autocratic and racist NS state operated without any respect towards anyhow deviant or resisting persons. Even peculiarities, such as telling a system critical joke, could lead to a death sentence, and particulalry the Jews were discriminated in all thinkable manners. That’s why the NS state was an illegitimate state of injustice. Within the NS leader state massive phenomens of corruption  were given - from political corruption (about power and resources) between more or less powerful actors to economic  corruption, for instance between the political and the economic elites, and diverse other forms of corruption, amongst them forms of corruption in the film business - no wonder in a highly centralized state with a monopoly of party power. Altogether, fair and free procedures for anybody were not given. Score: Fair and free procedures: 0%     3. Are all national borders respected? The NS ideology and its proponents did not respect any other national border except where a familiar actor (such as - the Arish - Swedens) offered to closely cooperate. This principal disrespect was sometimes camouflaged by lying and frauding (see the Olympic Games of 1936, raids on Poland, Belgium, USSR). Score: Respect for national borders: 2% Summed up score: Respect (0+0+2)/3= 0,7%  B) Participation  1. May the people elect and recall their government? The NS system proclaimed to be legitimated by the people. That is true (only) insofar as Hitler became Reichskanzler (chanceler) in a formally correct way. Whether the clandestine way of transition to Hitler’s chancelership can be denoted as democratic, however, is is open (Government by emergence decrees, money flues from the economy, clandestine bargain between Papen and Hitler, role of president Hindenburg). As soon as Hitler had become chanceler, all free and fair precures of decision-making were switched off very fast. So far no democracy existed any longer. But above all there was never a chance of recalling the NS rule. Score:  Elections and recall: 10 % 2. May the people participate in current decision- making? The NS system was a top-down leader system wherein a lot of people currently participated on different levels. At the first glance, that participation related only to the implementation of top decisions; but beyond leading representatives also actors on lower levels in politics, administration, military, economics, or cultural affairs down to the single caretaker (Blockwart) participated in often very consequential manners including independent decisions about life or death. And the power of the NS system cannot be understood without perceiving the massive support of the system by the clear majority of the population.  Even some formal plebiscites took place under the NS system: 12-th November 1933: Leaving the League of nations. Result: 95.1% yes. 19-th August 1934: After Hindenburg's death the chancellor and the president of the German Imperium should be one person. Result: 89.9% yes. Saar-country, 13-th of January 1935: German Saarland. Results: Saarland's inhabitants 90.8% wanted to join Germany, 8.8% stand alone, 0.4% wanted to join France. 29-th March 1936: German military presence on the Rhine area. Result: 98.8% yes. 10-th April 1938 Unification with Austria, Result: Germany 99.01%, Austria 99.73%. 2nd December 1938: Make elections of the Sudeta country. Result: 98.78% yes. In the plebiscites usually over 90% of the people took part, and most of the voting people agreed with the politics of the national socialist administration. Indeed, to an increasing degree these plebiscites were characterized through injuries against the principals of a free vote. The confidentiality of the ballot was injuried, voting ballots were featured in a manipulative way, and results were falsified. Insofar no democratic procedure was given. Nevertheless there was distinct exclusive participation by the majoritarian population in implementing the ruling system. Score: Participating in current decision-making: 50 % 3. How representative are the people’s representations? The NS system represented essential parts of the German population at that time. In contrast to the former monarchy, that was based on the old-fashioned corporative state (Ständestaat), led by high and lower parts of nobility, now the little (average) guy could see himself represented in the leading party and state structures. This impression of representativity, indeed, is countered by the fact that any minority, particularly social groups persecuted by the NS system, such as the Jews, were not at all represented in the system. But in statistical terms the NS system was prevailingly representative, expressed also by the support by a broad majority.  Score: Representativity:  60 % Summed up Score: Participation: (10+50+60)/3 = 40 %
C) Coordination  1. Is there guaranteed peace? The Hitler state run for setting a firm order - an attractive claim for many adherents at that time and afterwards. Any resistance against the state was held down by the open menace of brutally knocking down already little signs of deviance or even resistence, open discussions did not take place, and social minorities were supressed or even annihilated  - a dominating order that had been percieved as a comfortable kind of safe peace by many people. This kind of peace, however, was loaden up by ruling violence a) violence against minorities, particularly the Jews, and any political opposition, b) through strong efforts of a military build-up, c) through the more and more apparent prospect of the coming war. As of September 1939, there was open war started by the NS system and based on previous violent peace. This war more and more determined everyday life in NS Germany up to an armageddon for almost everybody.  Score: Guaranteed Peace: 30% 2. Is the public infrastructure sufficiently fostered? The German Autobahn (freeway), a project designed already before Hitler, became a corner stone of the NS propaganda, and until nowadays it is supposed to be one of the positive performances of the NS system. Starting from this issue the impression of a generally well developed infrastructure in NS Germany came up. In contrast to this impression, it has to be noted that there were only a few years open for developing infrastructures in terms of everyday life in peace. Very soon, partly long time before 1939, technical and economic efforts were mainly directed to increasing armament and other ways of preparing war. Regarding general infastructure performances (usable in peace by everybody), promises and propaganda were much more influential than usually perceived - see for instance the officially planned and in public presented project of the Volkswagen, that never got real in the NS system. In contrast, by the effects of international isolation and the dominance of war-production, many economic basics, such as essential raw materials, did not be at disposal to a sufficient degree. Insofar the NS economy including its infrastructures was prevailingly an economy of scarciness and deficits than an economy of wealth. Score: Infrastructure: 70% 3.  Is the economy well coordinated? Instead of traditional economic incentives, the Nazis offered solutions of a political nature, such as – the elimination of organized labour groups, rearmament (in contravention of the Versailles Treaty) and biological politics. Various work programs designed to establish full-employment for the German population were instituted once the Nazis seized full national power. Hitler encouraged nationally supported projects like the construction of the Autobahn, the introduction of an affordable people’s car (Volkswagen) and later, the Nazis bolstered the economy through the business and employment generated by military rearmament. Not only did the Nazis benefit early in the regime's existence from the first post-Depression economic upswing, their public works projects, job-procurement program, and subsidized home repair program reduced unemployment by as much as 40 percent in one year, a development which tempered the unfavorable psychological climate caused by the earlier economic crisis and encouraged Germans to march in step with the regime. The NS system stimulated the economy by a big machine of motivation and an extreme degree of deficite spending. In longer term the NS system could not compete with bigger states with a regularly structured economy, particularly the US economy. Score: Economic coordination: 70%    4. How equally are the incomes distributed? To protect the German people and currency from volatile market forces, the Nazis promised social policies like a national labour service, state-provided health care, guaranteed pensions, and an agrarian settlement program. To tie farmers to their land, selling agricultural land was prohibited. Farm ownership was nominally private, but business monopoly rights were granted to marketing boards to control production and prices with a quota system.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazism Social welfare policies initiated by the governments of the Weimar Republic were continued. Racially-worthy Germans should be supported through the National Socialist People's Welfare organisation. This organisation oversaw charitable activities, and became the largest civic organization in Nazi Germany. Successful efforts were made to get middle-class women involved in social work assisting large families. The Winter Relief campaigns acted as a ritual to generate public sympathy. Bonfires were made of school children's differently coloured caps as symbolic of the abolition of class differences. Large celebrations and symbolism were used extensively to encourage those engaged in physical labour on behalf of Germany, with leading National Socialists often praising the 'honor of labour', which fostered a sense of community (Gemeinschaft) for the German people and promoted solidarity towards the Nazi cause. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazism Aside of these policies, above all the growing number of jobs is usually considered as a contribution to reach a more equal income distribution. In contrast, there is the thesis of growing income disparities from 1933 to 1939 (Buggeln /Wild/Eds. Arbeit im Nationalsozialismus, de Gruyter 2014) http://piketty.pse.ens.fr/files/capitalisback/CountryData/Germany/Other/Pre1950Series/RefsHistorical GermanAccounts/Sweezy39.pdf Score: Equal income distribution: 60% 5. Health care Health care - like all areas of social, economic, and cultural policy - was refashioned to serve the political aims of the NS regime: It was an essential in achieving the regime’s policies of preparing war, of purification, and of national invigoration. So one of the first Nazi laws, passed July 14, 1933, was the Law for the Prevention of Progeny of Hereditary Disease, intended to consolidate social and health policies in the German population and prohibit the right of reproduction for persons defined as genetically inferior. http://fee.org/freeman/detail/national-health-care-medicine-in- germany-1918-1945 In this fundamentally racist frame, diverse health care policies were propagated, such as regularly doing physical training (particularly in NS youth groups and military), no smoking of women, modestly eating (once the week Eintopf essen, linked with a little donation for social care initiatives). The rational of those propagated efforts was deeply racist and war-oriented. That’s why possible positive health care effects for the majoritarian population from 1933 to 1939 are in sharp conflict with the extremely negative health effects in sum, above all, by the planned initiation of war and annihilation.  Score: Health care: 40% 6. Education The basic aims, the basic metaphors, and the structures of the NS education system corresponded with each other - resulting in an sustainable support of the system by big parts of the population. Under these aspects, the system was very successful. Measured by benchmarks of civil education, the NS system, however, had clearly negative aftermaths such as deeply authoritarian thinking, racism, fanatism, and opportunism. Score: Education: 20% 7. Research All NS research in areas concerning society, culture, and politics (see race research and so forth) did not produce any performance that could be acknowledged to foster human civilization in any way. In contrast, in some disciplines of natural science and technique NS Germany belonged to the top countries in the world - see for instance car and air plane development. Since that research was prevailingly oriented to strengthen military capacities of the NS state, the long-term civilian use of these capacities was rather low. Score: Research: 40%     8. Sustainability The NS state propagated its unlimitedly enduring rule (Thousand-year empire) and its universal extension. Central issues of propaganda and some concrete policies, particularly  the NS race policies, aimed at building up this enduring and extending empire. At that, ideologic bridges between concepts of nature, history (Middle Ages and Germanic traditions) and the empire to come were used.   This ideology corresponded with some irreal policies, above all the war against a bunch of  civilized countries able to produce strong military capacities. This war led not only to an abrupt end of the NS dominion; it also meant an ecological, economic and social disaster for hundreds of million people and the destruction of many towns in Germany and other countries - just the contrary of civil sustainability. Score: Sustainability: 10 % Summed up Score: Coordination (30+70+70+60+40+20+40+10)/8 = 41,25% Comprehensive Scores: Respect of the people: 0,7% Participation by the people: 40% Coordination for the people: 46,7%   Evaluation: The NS state was a murderous, participative autocracy              
The People Index Of the people, by the people, for the people  National Socialism  Germany 1933-1945 A murderous, participative autocracy  Criterions of evaluation: TPI 
Mass Extermination Camp Birkenau