A) Respect1. Are all people respected as equal and free citizens?The area of modern-day Saudi Arabia formerly consisted of four distinct regions: Hejaz, Najd and parts of Eastern Arabia (Al-Hasa) and Southern Arabia ('Asir). The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was founded in 1932 by Ibn Saud. He united the four regions into a single state through a series of conquests beginning in 1902 with the capture of Riyadh, the ancestral home of his family, the House of Saud. Today Saudi Arabia is an absolute monarchy. However, according to the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia adopted by royal decree in 1992, the king must comply with Sharia (Islamic law) and the Quran, while the Quran and the Sunnah (the traditions of Muhammad) are declared to be the country's constitution. Wahhabi Islam has been called the predominant feature of Saudi culture.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_ArabiaSlavery, until 1962 officially accepted, meanwhile has been formally reversed. The people living in different provinces are formally equal and free in the context of the given state, and all Muslim believers are proclaimed to be equal before God. But in contrast to this proclaimed equality, the sociopolitical reality in the country is basically uneven:•The royal family constitutes the politically and economically absolutely ruling group, far higher positioned than the rest. •Non Whahhabi islamic believers and non-islamic people are clearly disfavored and discriminated towards believers of the ruling Whahhabi religion (including Salafism).•In a deeply paternalistic society, strengthened by the paternalistic royal rule and the Whahhabi islam, women are clearly discriminated in many regards. Women's rights in Saudi Arabia are limited in comparison to many of its neighbors. The World Economic Forum 2013 Global Gender Gap Report ranked Saudi Arabia 127th out of 136 countries for gender parity. All women, regardless of age, are required to have a male guardian. Saudi Arabia has been the only country in the world to prohibit women from car driving. Indeed, women's status has been changing in recent decades: While women were previously forbidden from voting or being elected to political office, in 2011 King Abdullah declared that women would be able to vote and run in the 2015 local elections, as well as be appointed to the Consultative Assembly. More university graduates in Saudi Arabia are Saudi women than men, and female literacy is estimated to be 91% (though lower than male literacy) far higher than just 40 years ago. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_rights_in_Saudi_Arabia•Immigrants, particularly foreign workers of low working standards, a basic pillar of economy, still often live under formal and material conditions similar to slavery.Indeed, Saudi-Arabia (hitherto) does not systematically annihilate deviant or resisting groups, sofar respecting the human right of life.Score: Respect for all people as equal and free citizens: 12%2. Are fair procedures common? The legal system of Saudi Arabia is based on Sharia, Islamic law derived from the Qu'ran and the Sunnah (the traditions) of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The sources of Sharia also include Islamic scholarly consensus developed after Muhammad's death. Its interpretation by judges in Saudi Arabia is influenced by the medieval texts of the literalist Hanbali school of Islamic jurisprudence. Uniquely in the Muslim world, Sharia has been adopted by Saudi Arabia in an uncodified form. This, and the lack of judicial precedent, has resulted in considerable uncertainty in the scope and content of the country's laws. The government therefore announced its intention to codify Sharia in 2010, but this is yet to be implemented. Sharia has also been supplemented by regulations issued by royal decree covering modern issues such as intellectual property and corporate law. Nevertheless, Sharia remains the primary source of law, especially in areas such as criminal, family, commercial and contract law, and the Qu'ran and the Sunnah are declared to be the country's constitution. In the areas of land and energy law the extensive proprietorial rights of the Saudi state (in effect, the Saudi royal family) constitute a significant feature.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legal_system_of_Saudi_ArabiaCriminal law punishments in Saudi Arabia include public beheading, stoning, amputation and lashing. Serious criminal offences include not only internationally recognized crimes such as murder, rape, theft and robbery, but also apostasy, adultery, witchcraft and sorcery. In addition to the regular police force, Saudi Arabia has a secret police, the Mabahith, and "religious police", the Mutawa. The latter enforces Islamic social and moral norms.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legal_system_of_Saudi_ArabiaThe Saudi-Arabian punishments closely correspond with the punishments usual in Islamic State.aSource: https://twitter.com/MiddleEastEye/status/557589962724769792/photo/1Regarding personal equality towards the law Sharia is distinctly unfair because women are placed in a worse position compared to men (see for instance adultary, usually only practised regarding women), homosexuals are placed without having any right to live, and non-islamic as well as wrong islamic persons or groups (such as Shiits) are principially discriminated.General human rights, such as the right of freely joining a certain religion and the right of freely renouncing a religion are not at all given in Saudi Arabia.The degree of the Sharia punishments appears to be uncivilized in many regards. So thefts are punished for all life (without having any chance to make forget their wrong behavior), and all religious punishments, in principal illegitimated in a free state, are additionally measured in extreme degrees, often by death sentences.Finally, in Saudi-Arabia all Sharia rules and punishments are - without a publicly guaranteed operationalization - arbitrary to a high degree, that is dependent on concrete power relations and casual events.http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/saudi-arabien-100-hinrichtungen-seit-anfang-des-jahres-a-1038955.htmlAltogether, there are no fair procedures in Saudi-Arabia. Score: Fair procedures: 0%3. Respect for all national borders?Saudi Arabia is usually considered as a regional power. As such it takes influence beyond regional national borders in diverse manners. As to be seen in the current Jemen conflict, Saudi-Arabia is willing and able to militarilly intervene if it considers be challenged (such as by the Huthi rebels respectively Iran). The country has the fourth highest military expenditure in the world, and in 2010-14 it was the world's second largest arms importer. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_ArabiaAside of the Iraq-wars (where it took part in the US dominated Coalition of the Willing), Saudi Arabia however usually intervenes in hidden, mostly financial ways. An organizational medium of that exercise transboundary power is the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf, except for Iraq. Its member states are Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.Beyond, Saudi-Arabia traditionally has been a core actor of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation as well as the most powerful actor of the OPEC. The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) (formerly Organization of the Islamic Conference) is the second largest inter-governmental organization after the United Nations which has membership of 57 states spread over four continents. The Organization is the collective voice of the Muslim world and ensuring to safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world ). http://www.oic-oci.org/oicv2/page/?p_id=52&p_ref=26&lan=enThe Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), a permanent, international organization headquartered in Vienna, Austria, is to coordinate and unify the petroleum policies of its members and to ensure the stabilization of oil markets in order to secure an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consumers, a steady income to producers, and a fair return on capital for those investing in the petroleum industry. According to the United States Energy Information Administration (EIA), OPEC crude oil production is an important factor affecting global oil prices. OPEC sets production targets for its member nations and generally, when OPEC production targets are reduced, oil prices increase. Projections of changes in Saudi production result in changes in the price of benchmark crude oils.All these international and multinational activities go beyond national borders, but do not injure them formally. In contrast, Saudi-Arabia routinely stresses the peaceful character of any of its efforts (such as within the OIC: ...in the spirit of promoting international peace and harmony among various people of the world.) http://www.oic-oci.org/oicv2/page/?p_id=52&p_ref=26&lan=enOn the other side, Saudi-Arabia is the most significant financial power to support Whahhabi mosques all over the world - a sort of religion that is often associated with producing narrowness and, above all mediated by the close connection to present Salafism, associated with high risks of producing terroristic networks.http://www.shariahfinancewatch.org/blog/2015/03/04/americans-for-peace-and-tolerance-uncovers-massive-saudi-funding-of-terror-tied-boston-mosque/http://www.shariahfinancewatch.org/blog/category/saudi-arabia/Al-Qaeda is of Saudi-Arabian origin. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-QaedaAltogether Saudi-Arabia (including its religious hierarchy, the royal family and hiddenly acting socio-economic actors) prevailingly does not respect national borders. Score: Respect of all national borders: 20%Summed up score: Respect (12+0+20)/3 = 10.7%B) Participation1. May the people elect and recall their government?In Saudi-Arabia, no political parties or national elections are permitted.On municipal level, indeed, there have been made first efforts to bring about elections for half the seats (the half of each council's seats were appointed) to so-called municipal councils. Hitherto women were not allowed to stand for office or to vote.In Riyadh, the number of registered voters did not exceed 18% of those eligible to vote, representing only 2% of the city's population. There was evidence of much greater interest in the Shia community of the Eastern Province. Women will be allowed to vote beginning in 2012, as King Abdullah announced in the opening speech of the new term of the Shura Council.In 2005, candidates tended to be local businessmen, activists and professionals. Although political parties were not permitted, it was possible to identify candidates as having an Islamist orientation, a liberal agenda or reliant on tribal status. The Islamist candidates tended to be backed by public figures and the religious establishment and won most of the seats in the Saudi cities such as Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Tabuk and Taif. Candidates with "Western sympathies or any suspicion of secularism" lost out heavily to "hardline conservatives who were endorsed by the local religious establishment." This demonstrated to some that rather than being a conservative force holding back the country, the royal family was more progressive than the Saudi population as a whole.In 2007, a Saudi commentator noted that the municipal councils were proving to be powerless. Nevertheless, the elections represented an important step in modernizing the regime.Although male-only municipal elections were held again on 29 September 2011, Abdullah announced that women will be able to vote and be elected in the 2015 municipal elections. Score: Electing and recalling of the government: 5%2. May the people participate in current decision-making?Politics in Saudi Arabia takes place in two distinct arenas: within the royal family, the Al Saud, and between the royal family and the rest of Saudi society. Outside of the Al-Saud, participation in the political process is limited to a relatively small segment of the population and takes the form of the royal family consulting with the ulema, tribal sheikhs and members of important commercial families on major decisions. This process is not reported by the Saudi media.By custom, all males of full age have a right to petition the king directly through the traditional tribal meeting known as the majlis. In many ways the approach to government differs little from the traditional system of tribal rule. Tribal identity remains strong and, outside of the royal family, political influence is frequently determined by tribal affiliation, with tribal sheikhs maintaining a considerable degree of influence over local and national events.In recent years there have been limited steps to widen political participation such as the establishment of the Consultative Council in the early 1990s and the National Dialogue Forum in 2003. Since 2013 there is a 20 percent quota for women in the country’s 150-member Shura Council, and the king appointed 30 women to join the consultative assembly. The assembly, whose members are appointed by the king, works as the formal advisory body of Saudi Arabia. It can propose draft laws following which it would present them to the king, who, in turn, would either pass or reject them.http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2013/01/11/259881.htmlHalf the seats in municipal councils in Saudi Arabia have been chosen in men-only elections since 2005. Saudi Arabian women campaigned for the right to participate in the 2011 elections, organising through the "Baladi" (My Country) and Saudi Women's Revolution campaigns for women's right to participate. Several women tried to register as electors in Jeddah, Riyadh and Dammam. A few days before the 2011 election took place, King Abdullah announced that women would be able to participate as voters and candidates in the 2015 election.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Arabian_municipal_elections,_2015Score: Participating in current decision-making: 15% 3. How representative are the people’s representations?The Saudi-Arabian kind of representation is a pre-modern one: The royal family and the theological hierarchy shall represent the society in a qualitative manner. Out of these both pillars of state, the theological hierarchy appears to represent the public to a greater deal than the absolute monarchy. Modern forms of representation, however, do only exist to an extremely limited degree. Accordingly social and political minorities, such as Shia muslims, are massively underrepresented or not represented at all. Also women are by far underrepresented. Score: Representativity: 15% Summed up score: Participation 5+15+15/3 = 11.7%
C) Coordination1. Is there guaranteed peace?Based on strong security and military forces, pressure capacities of the theological hierarchy, economic bribes for the population, and its strong international anchorage, Saudi-Arabia has brought about a relatively stabil peace for decades.Indeed, a series of militant actions and terroristic attacks against either the Saudi-Arabian government or against US American instituts in the country have been registered.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_militant_incidents_in_Saudi_Arabia Notations of terrorism, on the other side, have partly to be relativized. So in March 2014, the Saudi interior ministry issued a royal decree branding all atheists as terrorists, which defines terrorism as "calling for atheist thought in any form, or calling into question the fundamentals of the Islamic religion on which this country is based"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terrorism_in_Saudi_ArabiaAlso protest actions, following protests in other Arabian states, since 2011 (Arabian Spring), usually have been dealt with as kinds of terrorism, often shot down by security forces resulting in dozens of deads.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2011%E2%80%93present_Saudi_Arabian_protestsEven regular peace in Saudi Arabia is featured by a steadily given high risk of being injured for any minority group including women.Also the very active role of Saudi Arabia in military conflicts around, such as in Jemen, and its massive support of militant forces in diverse Middle East conflicts (such as Syria), prompts the conclusion that peace-keeping in Saudi Arabia is under pressure.Score: Guaranteed peace: 65% 2. Is the public infrastructure sufficiently fostered?There are no reliable and up-to-date data on access to drinking water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia. According to the WHO, the latest reliable source is the 1993 census. It indicates that in urban areas, where 88% of the population lives, 97% had access to drinking water from house connections and 100% had access to improved sanitation. Urban sanitation was primarily through on-site solutions and only 43% of the urban population was connected to sewers. In rural areas, however, only 63% had access to an improved source of water supply. There are no reliable figures on access to sanitation in rural areas. However, according to a 2004 study of Elie Elhadj from the School of Oriental and African Studies “one half of Saudi householders still have no municipal water connections and two thirds are without sanitation connections”. Also, Saudi cities have no rainwater drainage systems to deal with the brief and occasional, but severe deluges of winters.Drinking water. Despite clear improvements the quality of service remains insufficient. For example, few cities enjoy continued service, and water pressure is often inadequate. In Riyadh water was available only once every 2.5 days in 2011, while in Jeddah it is available only every 9 days. This is still better than in 2008, when the respective figures were 5 and 23 days. While systematic data on service quality are now available for several cities, they are not publicly available. In some localities groundwater used for drinking water supply is naturally contaminated with levels of fluoride in excess of the recommended level of 0.7 to 1.2 mg/l. For example, a 1990 study showed that the fluoride level in drinking water in Mecca was 2.5 mg/l. In Riyadh the level of fluoride is reduced far below the recommended level by blending groundwater with desalinated seawater.Wastewater: There are 33 wastewater treatment plants with a capacity of 748 million cubic meters per year, and 15 more are under construction. Much of the treated wastewater is being reused to water green spaces in the cities (landscaping), for irrigation in agriculture and other uses.Concentrated sewage from septic tanks is collected through trucks. In Jeddah the trucks dumped sewage for 25 years in a valley that was euphemistically called the "Musk Lake". The pond, holding more than 50 million cubic meters of sewage, almost overflowed during heavy rains in November 2009 threatening to flood parts of the city. After that, the King ordered the lake to be dried up within a year with the help of the National Water Company.Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is characterized by significant investments in seawater desalination, water distribution, sewerage and wastewater treatment leading to a substantial increase in access to drinking water and sanitation over the past decades. About 50% of drinking water comes from desalination, 40% from the mining of non-renewable groundwater and 10% from surface water, especially in the mountainous South-West of the country. The capital Riyadh, located in the heart of the country, is supplied with desalinated water pumped from the Persian Gulf over a distance of 467 km. Given the substantial oil wealth, water is provided almost for free. Despite improvements service quality remains poor. For example, in Riyadh water was available only once every 2.5 days in 2011, while in Jeddah it is available only every 9 days. Institutional capacity and governance in the sector are weak, reflecting general characteristics of the public sector in Saudi Arabia. Since 2000, the government has increasingly relied on the private sector to operate water and sanitation infrastructure, beginning with desalination and wastewater treatment plants. Since 2008, the operation of urban water distribution systems is being gradually delegated to private companies as well.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_supply_and_sanitation_in_Saudi_ArabiaAside of - absolutely basic - water aspects, very strong and prevailingly successful efforts have been made to bring up and to care of public infrastructures, such as roads, trains, and electrictity. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saudi_Railways_Organisationhttp://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20120802006234/en/Research-Markets-Saudi-Arabia-Infrastructure-Report-Q3#.VR2E0OE3nIUhttp://www.mondaq.com/x/351276/Government+Contracts+Procurement+PPP/Saudi+Arabia+Removes+Barriers+To+Infrastructure+Contractinghttp://www.clydeco.com/insight/updates/view/procurement-of-public-infrastructure-in-the-kingdom-of-saudi-arabia-the-pubhttp://www.marketresearch.com/Business-Monitor-International-v304/Saudi-Arabia-Power-Q2-8894561/Score: Infrastructure Policy: 80% 3. Is the economy well coordinated?Saudi Arabia is the world's second largest oil producer and largest exporter, and controls the world's second largest hydrocarbon reserves. Backed by its fossil fuels, the kingdom is categorized as a high income economy, and is the only Arab country to be part of the G-20 major economies. Public Debt of Saudi-Arabia enhibits a negative value, that is, it shows (together with some other oil-states) distinctly positive households. https://pbs.twimg.com/media/B7z1HcsCUAEliRF.jpgHowever, Saudi Arabia has the least diversified economy in the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC). And is is questioned how sustainable investments have been done.Score: Economy: 85%4. How equally are the oncomes distributed?Saudi Arabians generally enjoy a decent standard of living, due in large part to government programs designed to minimize poverty. Saudi citizens are given free education (although enrollment is not required and has historically been low, accounting for relatively high illiteracy rates) and health care, and all adult Saudis are entitled to a plot of land and a loan of US$80,000 with which to build a house.The GDP per capita in Saudi Arabia reached its peak in the late 1970s and early 1980s, when elevated oil prices were generating high levels of revenue. In 1981, GDP per head reached US$16,650. Slumping oil prices and declining production in the ensuing years caused the per capita GDP to fall. By the end of the decade the figure dropped to US$5,500. Rising oil prices following the Gulf War coupled with increased Saudi production helped raise the per capita GDP once again. In 1999 the figure stood at US$9,000.Despite the extensive social safety net in Saudi Arabia, the unequal distribution of wealth in the country is fostering resentment among the country's poorest citizens. In 1999, the National Commercial Bank estimated that out of a population of 20 million, there were 120,000 millionaires controlling a combined fortune of over US$400 billion. Read more: http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/Saudi-Arabia-POVERTY-AND-WEALTH.html#ixzz3WGDRVJycGiven data on per Capita Income 2013 sourced by International Monetary Fund and World Bank show Saudia-Arabia on place 11 respectively 12 of the world (with...amongst the toc countries in the world. CIA data, in contrast show a much lower per capita standard of the country (with 31.300 estimated/2013) and place...http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GDP_%28PPP%29_per_capitaCurrent data on income distribution in Saudi-Arabia are not at disposal. Obviously Saudi-Arabian government is ot interested in publishing such data. That’s why scepticism appears to be appropriate in spite of the proclaimed and emphasized distributional policies and free access aspects of some services in the country.Score: Income distribution: 55%5. Health Care PolicyHealth care also receives a great deal of government attention. Facilities are generally good. According to a 2001 report issued by the Ministry of Health, the 314 private hospitals provide 1 bed for every 461 people. The 2001 budget provided spending for the construction of 30 new hospitals.http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/Saudi-Arabia-POVERTY-AND-WEALTH.html http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Asia-and-the-Pacific/Saudi-Arabia-POVERTY-AND-WEALTH.html#ixzz3WGCOs4xgLife expectancy at birth has continuously risen from 71 years in 1995 to 75 years in 2012.http://data.worldbank.org/country/saudi-arabiaScore: Health Care: 90%6. EducationIn the past, illiteracy rates have been high in Saudi Arabia, so hovering at around 20 percent in 1999. In 2007 the incidence of illiteracy among the Saudi population was 13.7%. At that the illiteracy rate stood at 1.4% for the age group 10 to 14 years, while the highest level in the age group between the ages of 65 and more stood at 73.9%. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Saudi_Arabia Facing this situation, the government has placed heavy emphasis on improving education. Outside of defense expenditures, education spending accounted for the largest portion of the government budget (27 percent in 2000).However, Saudi education is noted for its religious content. The study of Islam dominates the Saudi educational system. In particular, the memorization by rote of large parts of the Qu'ran, its interpretation and understanding (Tafsir) and the application of Islamic tradition to everyday life is at the core of the curriculum. Religion taught in this manner is also a compulsory subject for all university students. Saudi youth generally lacks the education and technical skills the private sector needs. The Islamic aspect of the Saudi national curriculum is examined in a 2006 report by Freedom House which concluded that the Saudi public school religious curriculum continues to propagate an ideology of hate toward the 'unbeliever'... https://freedomhouse.org/article/revised-saudi-government-textbooks-still-demonize-christians-jews-non-wahhabi-muslims-and?page=70&release=379#.VSABG-E3nIU The Saudi religious studies curriculum is taught outside the Kingdom in madrasah throughout the world. Critics have described the education system as medieval and that its primary goal is to maintain the rule of absolute monarchy by casting it as the ordained protector of the faith, and that Islam is at war with other faiths and cultures. The consequence of this approach is considered by many, including perhaps the Saudi government itself, to have encouraged Islamist terrorism. To tackle the twin problems of extremism and the inadequacy of the country's university education, the government is aiming to modernise the education system through the Tatweer reform program. The Tatweer program is reported to have a budget of approximately US$2 billion and focuses on moving teaching away from the traditional Saudi methods of memorization and rote learning towards encouraging students to analyze and problem-solve as well as creating a more secular and vocationally based education system.As of January 2015, the International Schools Consultancy (ISC) listed Saudi Arabia as having 203 international schools. ISC defines an 'international school' in the following terms "ISC includes an international school if the school delivers a curriculum to any combination of pre-school, primary or secondary students, wholly or partly in English outside an English-speaking country, or if a school in a country where English is one of the official languages, offers an English-medium curriculum other than the country’s national curriculum and is international in its orientation." http://www.iscresearch.com/information/isc-news.aspxScore: Education: 40%7. Ecological and financial sustainabilityAlthough Saudi Arabia has started to think about susstainability, its CO2 emissions have steeply arisen from 12.7 metric tons/capita in 1995 to 17.0 in 2010).http://data.worldbank.org/country/saudi-arabiaAccording to Germanwatch’s Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) the country shows also 2014 a very poor result (place 61 of 61 countries). Indeed a certain energy political strategy change appears to go onin Saudi Arabia. Germanwatch’s commentary is as follows: Although Saudi Arabia’s place remains unchanged compared to 2013, still placing the kingdom last in the rankings with some distance to Kazakhstan, it must be noted that its national strategy on climate change and energy is changing. With regards to climate policy, the replacement of the country’s chief negotiator led to the kingdom’s most cooperative role in the pre-COP process since 25 years. Additionally, the world’s largest crude oil exporter is planning to move aggressively into renewable energy, with plans to install enormous solar and wind power capacities in the next 20 years.https://germanwatch.org/de/download/8599.pdfAgainst the background of the drastically fallen oil price in 2015 and exceeding consumption and investments in Saudi Arabia, the financial suatainability of the country is assessed negatively by Worldbank: The current account balance of GDP is prognosed to steeply decrease up to negative values in the years 2016 until 2017.http://data.worldbank.org/country/saudi-arabia Score: Sustainability: 45%Summed up score: Coordination(65+80+85+55+90+40+45)/7 = 65.7 %Comprehensive Evaluation Saudi Arabia▪Respect: 10.7%▪Participation: 11.7%▪Coordination : 65.7%Saudi Arabia is a fundamentalistic autocracy of worldwide influence.
IPAInstitute for Political AnalysisProf. Dr. Volker von Prittwitz
The People IndexOf the people, by the people, for the peopleSaudi-ArabiaA fundamentalistic autocracyof worldwide influenceCriterions of evaluation: TPI / Critique, proposals: Contact